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Yearly Checkup

231

Complete chemistry panel, Liver function, cholesterol lipid panel, blood cell count, urinalysis, blood glucose percentage.

  • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (GPT)

    Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (GPT) measurements are particularly useful in the diagnosis and management of certain liver diseases, e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. ALT activity in tissue is generally much lower than aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and is found in highest concentrations in the liver. Significant elevations of ALT occur only in diseases of the liver. ALT is often measured in conjunction with AST to determine whether the source of the AST is the liver or the heart. ALT is normally not elevated in cases of myocardial infarction, i.e., a normal ALT, in conjunction with an elevated AST, tends to suggest cardiac disease. However, slight elevations of ALT may occur if an infarct destroys a very large volume of heart muscle.

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio

    Albumin / Globulin Ratio – Calculation Ratio concentration of Albumin to other Proteins in Blood

  • Aspartate Aminotransferase AST (GOT)

    Aspartate Aminotransferase AST (GOT) is widely distributed throughout the tissues with significant amounts being in the heart and liver. Lesser amounts are found in skeletal muscles, kidneys, pancreas, spleen, lungs, and brain. Injury to these tissues results in the release of the AST enzyme to general circulation. In myocardial infarction, serum AST may begin to rise within 6-8 hours after onset, peak within two days and return to normal by the fourth or fifth day post infarction. An increase in serum AST is also found with hepatitis, liver necrosis, cirrhosis, and liver metastasis.

  • BUN/Creatinine Ratio

    Calculation Ratio of BUN to Creatinine.

  • Carbon Dioxide Measurement (CO2)

    CO2 Carbon Dioxide Measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with changes in body acid-base balance.

  • Direct Bilirubin

    Measurement of the levels of Direct (conjugated) Bilirubin is used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver, hemolytic, hematologic, and metabolic disorders, including hepatitis and gall bladder obstruction. The assessment of direct bilirubin is helpful in the differentiation of hepatic disorders. The increase in total bilirubin associated with obstructive jaundice is primarily due to the direct (conjugated) fraction. Both direct and indirect bilirubin are increased in the serum with hepatitis.

  • Elevated Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)

    Elevated Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is found in all forms of liver disease. Measurement of GGT is used in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis, as well as primary and secondary liver tumors. It is more sensitive than alkaline phosphatase, the transaminases, and leucine aminopeptidase in detecting obstructive jaundice, cholangitis, and cholecystitis. Normal levels of GGT are seen in skeletal diseases; thus, GGT in serum can be used to ascertain whether a disease, suggested by elevated alkaline phosphatase, is skeletal or hepatobiliary.

  • Globulin Calculation

    Calculation of Total Protein minus Albumin concentration

  • Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

    Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR)– the best measure of kidney function.

  • Serum Triglyceride Analysis

    Serum Triglyceride analysis has proven useful in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus, nephrosis, liver obstruction, other diseases involving lipid metabolism, and various endocrine disorders. In conjunction with high density lipoprotein and total serum cholesterol, a triglyceride determination provides valuable information for the assessment of coronary heart disease risk.

  • HDL Cholesterol

    HDL cholesterol is inversely related to the risk for cardiovascular disease. It increases following regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption and with oral estrogen therapy. Decreased levels are associated with obesity, stress, cigarette smoking and diabetes mellitus.

  • ION Gap Calculation

    Calculation value calculated from the results of multiple individual medical lab tests.

  • LDL Cholesterol

    Direct measurement of LDL Cholestorol

  • Potassium Measurement

    Potassium measurements are useful in monitoring electrolyte balance in the diagnosis and treatment of disease conditions characterized by low or high blood potassium levels. Potassium is elevated in adrenal cortical insufficiency, acute renal failure and in some cases of diabetic acidosis. Potassium is decreased in diuretic administration and renal tubular acidosis.

  • Protein

    Protein normally isn’t found in the urine. Fever, hard exercise, pregnancy, and some diseases, especially kidney disease, may cause protein to be in the urine.

  • Serum Albumin

    Serum Albumin measurements are used in the monitoring and treatment of numerous diseases involving those related to nutrition and pathology particularly in the liver and kidney. Serum albumin is valuable when following response to therapy where improvement in the serum albumin level is the best sign of successful medical treatment. There may be a loss of albumin in the gastrointestinal tract, in the urine secondary to renal damage or direct loss of albumin through the skin. More than 50% of patients with gluten enteropathy have depressed albumin. The only cause of increased albumin is dehydration; there is no naturally occurring hyperalbuminemia.

  • Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Levels

    Serum Alkaline Phosphatase levels are of interest in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders and bone disease associated with increased osteoblastic activity. Moderate elevations of alkaline phosphatase may be seen in several conditions that do not involve the liver or bone. Among these are Hodgkin’s disease, congestive heart failure, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis, and intra-abdominal bacterial infections. Elevations are also observed during the third trimester of pregnancy.

  • Serum Calcium

    Serum Calcium is involved in the regulation of neuromuscular and enzyme activity, bone metabolism and blood coagulation. Calcium blood levels are controlled by a complex interaction of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, calcitonin and adrenal cortical steroids. Calcium measurements are useful in the diagnosis of parathyroid disease, some bone disorders and chronic renal disease. A low level of calcium may result in tetany.

  • Serum Chloride

    Serum Chloride is the major extracellular anion and counter-balances the major cation, sodium, maintaining electrical neutrality of the body fluids. Two thirds of the total anion concentration in extracellular fluids is chloride and it is significantly involved in maintaining proper hydration and osmotic pressure. Movement of chloride ions across the red blood cell membrane is essential for the transport of biocarbonate ions in response to changing concentrations of carbon dioxide. Chloride measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of electrolyte and metabolic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and diabetic acidosis.

  • Serum Creatinine

    Serum Creatinine is useful in the evaluation of kidney function and in monitoring renal dialysis. A serum creatinine result within the reference range does not rule out renal function impairment: serum creatinine is not sensitive to early renal damage since it varies with age, gender and ethnic background. The impact of these variables can be reduced by an estimation of the glomerular filtration rate using an equation that includes serum creatinine, age and gender.

  • Serum Glucose Levels

    Serum Glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell neoplasm.

  • Serum Phosphorus

    Serum Phosphorus (Phosphate) levels alone are of limited diagnostic value and should be correlated with serum calcium levels. An increased phosphorus with decreased calcium suggests either hypoparathyroidism or renal disease. A decreased phosphorus and an increased calcium suggests hyperparathyroidism or sarcoidosis. When both calcium and phosphorus are decreased diagnostic considerations include malabsorption, vitamin D deficiency and renal tubular acidosis. Increased phosphorus and normal or increased calcium suggests Milk-alkali syndrome or hypervitaminosis D.

  • Sodium Measurement

    Sodium measurements are useful in the diagnosis and treatment of aldosteronism, diabetes insipidus, adrenal hypertension, Addison’s Disease, dehydration, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, or other diseases involving electrolyte imbalance.

  • Total Bilirubin

    Measurement of the levels of Total Bilirubin is used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver, hemolytic, hematologic, and metabolic disorders, including hepatitis and gallbladder obstructive disease.

  • Total Cholesterol

    Total Cholesterol: LDL and HDL cholesterol, in conjunction with a triglyceride determination, provide valuable information for the risk of coronary artery disease. Total serum cholesterol analysis is useful in the diagnosis of hyperlipoproteinemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic and thyroid diseases.

  • HgbA1c - Total Glycohemoglobin

    Glycated hemoglobin HgbA1C (total glycohemoglobin) is a clinically useful tool in assessing glycemic control in diabetes mellitus as it reflects blood glucose levels over the circulatory half-life of the red blood cell (about 60 days).

  • Total Protein

    Total Protein is useful in evaluating patients for nutritional status, liver disease, protein-losing renal and gastrointestinal diseases, and many other medical conditions. Elevated concentrations may be observed in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, autoimmune hepatitis, inflammation, and other medical conditions.

  • Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

    Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is the principle waste product of protein catabolism. BUN is most commonly measured in the diagnosis and treatment of certain renal and metabolic diseases. Increased BUN concentration may result from increased production of urea due to (1) diet or excessive destruction of cellular proteins as occurs in massive infection and fevers, (2) reduced renal perfusion resulting from dehydration or heart failure, (3) nearly all types of kidney disease, and (4) mechanical obstruction to urine excretion such as is caused by stones, tumors, infection, or stricture. Decreased urea levels are less frequent and occur primarily in advanced liver disease and in overhydration.

  • Hemoglobin (HGB)

    The hemoglobin molecule fills up the red blood cells. It carries oxygen and gives the blood cell its red color. The hemoglobin test measures the amount of hemoglobin in blood and is a good measure of the blood’s ability to carry oxygen throughout the body.

  • Hematocrit (HCT)

    This test measures the amount of space (volume) red blood cells take up in the blood. The value is given as a percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood. For example, a hematocrit of 38 means that 38% of the blood’s volume is made of red blood cells. Hematocrit and hemoglobin values are the two major tests that show if anemia or polycythemia is present.

  • Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)

    Mean platelet volume measures the average amount (volume) of platelets. Mean platelet volume is used along with platelet count to diagnose some diseases. If the platelet count is normal, the mean platelet volume can still be too high or too low.

  • Platelet Count

    Platelets (thrombocytes) are the smallest type of blood cell. They are important in blood clotting. When bleeding occurs, the platelets swell, clump together, and form a sticky plug that helps stop the bleeding. If there are too few platelets, uncontrolled bleeding may be a problem. If there are too many platelets, there is a chance of a blood clot forming in a blood vessel. Also, platelets may be involved in hardening of the arteries.

  • Red Blood Cell Count

    Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. They also carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs so it can be exhaled. If the RBC count is low (anemia), the body may not be getting the oxygen it needs. If the count is too high (a condition called polycythemia), there is a chance that the red blood cells will clump together and block tiny blood vessels (capillaries). This also makes it hard for your red blood cells to carry oxygen.

  • Red Blood Cell Indices

    There are three red blood cell indices: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). They are measured by a machine, and their values come from other measurements in a CBC. The MCV shows the size of the red blood cells. The MCH value is the amount of hemoglobin in an average red blood cell. The MCHC measures the concentration of hemoglobin in an average red blood cell. These numbers help in the diagnosis of different types of anemia. Red cell distribution width (RDW) can also be measured which shows if the cells are all the same or different sizes or shapes.

  • White Blood Cell Count

    White blood cells protect the body against infection. If an infection develops, white blood cells attack and destroy the bacteria, virus, or other organism causing it. White blood cells are bigger than red blood cells but fewer in number. When a person has a bacterial infection, the number of white cells rises very quickly. The number of white blood cells is sometimes used to find an infection or to see how the body is dealing with cancer treatment.

  • White Blood Cell Types (WBC differential)

    The major types of white blood cells are neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Immature neutrophils, called band neutrophils, are also part of this test. Each type of cell plays a different role in protecting the body. The numbers of each one of these types of white blood cells give important information about the immune system. Too many or too few of the different types of white blood cells can help find an infection, an allergic or toxic reaction to medicines or chemicals, and many conditions, such as leukemia.

  • Bacteria

    There are no bacteria, yeast cells, or parasites in urine normally. If these are present, it can mean you have an infection.

  • Casts

    Some types of kidney disease can cause plugs of material (called casts) to form in tiny tubes in the kidneys. The casts then get flushed out in the urine. Casts can be made of red or white blood cells, waxy or fatty substances, or protein. The type of cast in the urine can help show what type of kidney disease may be present.

  • Clairty

    Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy.

  • Color

    Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown.

  • Crystals

    Healthy people often have only a few crystals in their urine. A large number of crystals, or certain types of crystals, may mean kidney stones are present or there is a problem with how the body is using food (metabolism).

  • Glucose

    Glucose is the type of sugar found in blood. Normally there is very little or no glucose in urine. When the blood sugar level is very high, as in uncontrolled diabetes, the sugar spills over into the urine. Glucose can also be found in urine when the kidneys are damaged or diseased.

  • Ketones

    When fat is broken down for energy, the body makes substances called ketones (or ketone bodies). These are passed in the urine. Large amounts of ketones in the urine may mean a very serious condition, diabetic ketoacidosis, is present. A diet low in sugars and starches (carbohydrates), starvation, or severe vomiting may also cause ketones to be in the urine.

  • Leukocyte Esterase

    Leukocyte esterase shows leukocytes (white blood cells [WBCs]) in the urine. WBCs in the urine may mean a UTI is present.

  • Microscopic Analysis

    In this test, urine is spun in a special machine (centrifuge) so the solid materials (sediment) settle at the bottom. The sediment is spread on a slide and looked at under a microscope. Things that may be seen on the slide include:

  • Nitrites

    Bacteria that cause a urinary tract infection (UTI) make an enzyme that changes urinary nitrates to nitrites. Nitrites in urine show a UTI is present.

  • pH Levels

    The pH is a measure of how acidic or alkaline (basic) the urine is. A urine pH of 4 is strongly acidic, 7 is neutral (neither acidic nor alkaline), and 9 is strongly alkaline. Sometimes the pH of urine is affected by certain treatments. For example, your doctor may instruct you how to keep your urine either acidic or alkaline to prevent some types of kidney stones from forming.

  • Red or White Blood Cells

    Blood cells aren’t found in urine normally. Inflammation, disease, or injury to the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra can cause blood in urine. Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, can also cause blood in the urine. White blood cells may be a sign of infection or kidney disease.

  • Specific Gravity

    This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity.

  • Squamous Cells

    The presence of squamous cells may mean that the sample is not as pure as it needs to be. These cells do not mean there is a medical problem, but your doctor may ask that you give another urine sample.